FREE Calendar Wheel Giveaway

Posted in Filing Materialmen's Liens,Materilamen's Liens,Payment Bonds,Uncategorized by Blue Blog on the February 27th, 2014

calendar wheel 005

Construction projects are all about deadlines–30 days, 60 days, 90 days…..You’re always calculating when you will start or complete your work during a project.

And, have you ever finished a project and when payment is slow, you want to know the deadline before your ability to file a payment bond or materialmen’s lien expires?  Affidavits of Nonpayment, for example, must be filed within 60 days from the date of your Georgia lien waiver, but your construction lien must be filed within 90 days of the last day you were on the job.

Well, there’s no need to keep counting out on your fingers or searching for the calendar you keep misplacing–Cobb Law Group has created a calendar wheel for this very thing, and as a small thank you, we will drop one in the mail to you for FREE!!  It’s so easy, just

1. “Like” Cobb Law Group on Facebook;
2.  Leave a comment on the blog with a topic you would like for us to write about in a future blog article or tell us how you found us; and
3. E-mail us your mailing address

No more scrambling around or being lazy about those deadlines–we use ours all the time!

Giveaway ends when supplies run-out!

GA Court Denies Payment Bond Requirement for Cleaning and Maintenance Contract

Posted in Georgia Case Law,Little Miller Act,Payment Bonds by Blue Blog on the December 3rd, 2013

Georgia Payment Bond Requirements on Public Projects


by Mark A. Cobb

A Georgia Court of Appeals recently published its opinion in Board of Regents of the University system of Georgia v. Brooks, and the holding impacts businesses providing janitorial and general maintenance on Georgia’s public buildings.

The Background  Facts:   The Plaintiffs’ employer entered into a maintenance and service contract with Georgia Southern University (“GSU”) which included the cleaning of rooms and the refinishing of floors.  In order to secure the contract, the employer submitted a payment bond to GSU, and the employees began working on the campus.  The employer, however, did not pay its employees; thus, the employees made a claim against the payment bond for payment of their past due wages.  Upon further investigation, it was determined that the employer had forged the payment bond.  Consequently, the employees became the plaintiffs in a lawsuit against the Board of Regents alleging that GSU owed a duty to the Plaintiffs to “obtain, confirm and [e]nsure the existence of a valid payment bond under O.C.G.A. §§ 13-10-62 and 13-20-63″ (which is often called “The Little Miller Act”).

GSU’s Argument: The Board of Regents denied all liability.  Among its arguments, the Defendant argued that the suit was barred by the doctrine of sovereign immunity.  More specifically, the Defendant argued that the claim was a tort claim based upon negligence, and, as such, the case was governed by the Georgia Tort Claims Act (and not by the payment bond requirements of the construction of public works projects of Title 13).  Consequently, the Defendant argued that GSU was entitled to sovereign immunity from all tort suits, including this one,  and that the doctrine of sovereign immunity extends to employees of the State of Georgia while acting within the scope of their official duties or employment.

The Court’s Ruling: Although the Plaintiffs insisted that O.C.G.A. §§ 13-10-62 and 13-10-63 required a payment bond for the Plaintiffs’ protection, the Georgia Court of Appeals found that the Plaintiff’s failed to demonstrate that these code sections were applicable in this specific instance.  Since the requirement for a payment bond was not proven, then, the court reasoned, the doctrine of sovereign immunity applied.

When Are Payment Bonds Required on Georgia Public Works Projects?  According to O.C.G.A. § 13-10-60, Payment bonds are required for “public works construction contracts with an estimated contract amount greater than $100,000.00.”   Although the phrase “public works construction contracts” is not defined in Chapter 10 of Title 13, the Court of Appeals noted that the same phrase is defined in the statutory scheme governing local government public works construction (which is substantially similar to the statutory scheme governing public works owned by the State of Georgia).  According to O.C.G.A. § 36-91-2(12), the term “public works construction” means “the building, altering, repairing, improving, demolishing of any public structure or building . … Such term does not include the routine operation, repair, or maintenance of existing structures, buildings, or real property.”

What is the Lesson for Subcontractors Working on Public Projects?  In this case, Plaintiffs did not submit the entire GSU contract into the record, and the complaint and portions of the GSU contract which were included in the record show only that the contract was for maintenance and other services, such as cleaning services.   Consequently, the Plaintiffs failed to establish that their contract was for public works construction and, accordingly, a payment bond was not required by law.  Therefore, prior to bringing a suit against a payment bond, it is vital to determine whether or not a payment bond was required for a specific contract.

Are there Other Important Lessons from this Case?  Yes!  Since the original payment bond submitted by the Plaintiffs’ employer was forged, the Plaintiffs also argued that GSU had a duty to confirm the validity of the payment bond.  The court also held that Plaintiffs failed to demonstrate the state’s duty to verify the accuracy of the payment bond and reminded us that when the Board of Regents takes a proper-form bond, it is “not required to make any further inquiry or investigation into the propriety of the information presented on the face of the payment bond.”  It is incumbant upon the subcontractor or supplier to confirm the validity of the payment bond on which they work or supply materials.

4 Types of Georgia Payment Bonds

Posted in Little Miller Act,Miller Act,Payment Bonds,Public Works Projects by Blue Blog on the March 19th, 2013

Georgia Public Works Payment Bond Claim

By:  Mark A. Cobb

Making a payment bond claim (i.e., a claim against the surety bond) in Georgia may be difficult unless you realize that there are four different types of payment bonds and that each type of payment bond has its own requirements and its own statutes of limitations.

Payment Bonds Help You Get Paid on Georgia Projects: The construction industry is very unique and offers its material suppliers and subcontractors tremendous advantages to make sure that they receive payment for their services, labor and supplies.  But, in order to avail yourself of these advantages, you must strictly comply with each of the requirements and deadlines necessary to enforce your claim.

The Advantage to Being a Georgia Subcontractor or Supplier: In typical business situations, two parties contact with each other and, in the event of a breach of the contract, the offended party can only seek restitution from the breaching party.  As an example, let’s assume that ABC Construction, Inc. contracts with XYZ Roofing Corp. for the delivery of roofing tiles.  If the roofing tiles are delivered, but they are not paid for, Georgia contract law clearly allows XYZ Roofing Corp. to seek payment from ABC Construction, Inc.  And, in most business law situations (i.e., in non-construction claims), ABC Construction, Inc. would be XYZ Roofing Corp.’s sole avenue for recovery.

However, Georgia’s materialmen lien law and Federal and state payment bond statutes allow Georgia contractors and materialmen to also seek recovery from additional parties:  In the case of a lien claim, XYZ Roofing Corp can also seek recovery from the owner of the construction project, and in the case of a payment bond claim, XYZ Roofing Corp. can also seek recovery from the surety or insurance company backing the payment bond.

Four Different Types of Payment Bonds in Georgia: The advantage of seeking payment from parties other than those with whom you have a direct contractual relationship come with obligations from the potential payment bond claimant.  Because there are four significant types of payment bonds covering Georgia construction projects, each type of bond has its own distinct differences with differing requirements.

1.    Federal Public Works Bonds Under the Miller Act:  Most Federal projects in Georgia are required to provide payment bonds to protect suppliers and subcontractors.  The Federal statute governing these bonds is commonly referred to as the Miller Act.  Currently, the Federal Miller Act does not require a preliminary notice (e.g., an NTO or a Notice of Furnishing).

2.    Georgia Public Works Bonds Under the Little Miller Act:  Most construction projects owned by the State of Georgia require the general contractor to post a payment bond for the benefit of the project’s materialmen and subcontractors.  The Georgia State Statute governing these bonds and their claims is commonly referred to as Georgia’s Little Miller Act.  It is called this as many of the provisions in the Georgia Little Miller Act mirror the provisions of the Federal Miller Act.  However, there are significant differences which can abridge a subcontractor or supplier’s rights.  Unlike the Federal Miller Act, for example, Georgia’s Little Miller Act requires that those not in privity of contract with the prime contractor or the owner send a Notice to Owner and a Notice to Contractor within 30 days of the first day that the subcontractor or supplier begins working on the job.

3.    Georgia Municipality Public Works Bonds: Although there are many similarities between them, local municipalities in Georgia are governed by a different set of statutes that the State of Georgia’s Little Miller Act.  Nonetheless, most local government projects (e.g., school construction or renovation) are required to maintain a payment bond to protect the project’s contractors and material suppliers.

4.    Private Project Payment Bonds: The three preceding bond statutes require payment bonds on governmental projects.  Although not required by law, many private projects–particularly large projects–are also covered by bonds.  In these situations, potential bond claimants must meet the individual requirements of each bond in order to qualify as a claimant.  In these situations, it is vital to obtain a copy of the payment bond at the project’s beginning and then read and comply with each of its terms and deadlines.

The Payment Bond Terms May Expand Subcontractors Rights: Each of the first three categories of payment bonds in Georgia (Miller Act Bonds, Little Miller Act Bonds, and Municipal Construction Bonds) have minimum requirements established by their respective statutes.  However, the payment bond is also a contract between the governmental entity undertaking the work and its insurer; thus, the contract between them may be more expansive than the minimum requirements of the law.  It is possible, therefore, for a particular payment bond to grant more rights to a claimant, extend the deadlines, or include a class of potential bond claimants which might otherwise be excluded.  Therefore, every contractor and every supplier should review the terms of every payment bond under which they are working.

In the future, we intend to write a series of blog posts highlighting more details of each of the different types of payment bonds in Georgia.  In the meantime, if you are working on or providing materials to any Federal, state or municipal project in Georgia (or a private project with a payment bond) you need to consult with an experienced payment bond attorney who can help you understand your rights, protect and preserve your rights, and, if necessary, enforce your rights.

If you have any questions regarding any type of payment bonds in Georgia, please email us or call the payment bond claim lawyers at the Cobb Law Group toll free at 1-866-960-9539.


Posted in Miller Act,Payment Bonds by Blue Blog on the October 19th, 2012

Atlanta Payment Bond Claim Laywer
by:  Mark Cobb

An Atlanta payment bond claim, a Marietta payment bond claim, a Coweta County payment bond claim, an Athens, Clarke County payment bond claim, a Fort Benning, Georgia payment bond claim, and a Savannah payment bond claim.  This is my week so far!

Since the Cobb Law Group’s construction law practice has been so busy with filing and perfecting claims against payment bonds this week, we thought our readers might appreciate hearing some of our ideas on the payment (and nonpayment) trends that we are seeing!

So far this week, we have initiated six payment bond claims.  Although the mechanics lien attorneys at the Cobb Law Group also typically file numerous mechanics and materialmen lien claims in Atlanta and throughout Georgia each week, so far, we haven’t filed any new Claims of Liens.  We monitor our clients’ files very carefully, and since almost all of our clients are construction professionals (in particular, they are specialty subcontractors and material suppliers), we have the advantage of noticing trends affecting the industry before others.  Also, since we have been focused on Georgia subcontractor law for over 20 years, we recognize the cyclical nature of the trends and can see the big-picture.

Unfortunately, the U.S. economy is not recovering as quickly as we need; our little feelers indicate certain geographic pockets experiencing slight increases in construction, but other areas continue to be stagnant. Although they are not as plentiful as we would like to see, there are government public works projects providing construction contracts to subcontractors and purchasing construction materials from suppliers.  Without spending too much time on this (we’ll save it for another blog article), government projects are subject to difficult bidding procedures and, increasingly, bid preferences for local contractors which greatly limit the playing field for legitimate, regional contractors.  Nonetheless, there are some government construction projects out there which are providing necessary work.

Georgia Payment Bond Claim Statute of Limitations


Government projects are notoriously slow-paying which means that subcontractors and suppliers have to vigilantly monitor their (i) 60-day deadline from the date a Georgia lien or bond waiver was signed to file an Affidavit of Nonpayment if they haven’t received payment, and (ii) 90-day deadline from the last day they were on the job to make their claim against the surety backing the payment bond.


Furthermore, federal construction projects are governed by the Miller Act; State of Georgia construction projects are governed by Georgia’s version of the Miller Act which is referred to as the Little Miller Act.  It is essential that everyone understand that these two Acts–although parallel in many respects–differ substantially!

Because the government projects are slow-paying, our clients are asking us to timely file their claims against the projects’ payment bonds.  As mentioned, above, our Georgia payment bond lawyers have initiated six new claims so far this week.  All six of these claims were approaching the deadlines in which a valid claim could be made.

It is interesting to note, however, that of the six claims we have begun in the last day or so, we have settled (or almost resolved) four of them!  Here’s the break-down:

  • payment of  two of the payment bond claims have been paid in full via joint-check;
  • payment of two of the payment bond claims have been promised by the general contractor within the next 30 to 45 days; and
  • two of the payment bond claims have not yet received a response (but we are hopeful they will get paid quickly!).


So, what exactly does this little study show?  Slow-pay is not “no-pay”, but you will probably have to exercise your legal rights to make a claim against the payment bond in order to get paid; in four out of our six examples, 2 have been paid and 2 are promised to be paid.  Thus, our clients have already released two payment bond claims, and two others have been suspended pending payment by the surety or the general contractor.  That’s recovery of 2/3 of the cases in a matter of hours after bringing a payment bond construction lawyer on board.  Prime contractors understand the government’s slow-pay mechanism; however, as the entity posting the bonds, it is the prime contractors’ credit rating which is affected by a subcontractor’s or materialmen’s claim; thus, it is in the best interest of the general contractor to pay the third-tier supplier or subcontractor rather than face increased premiums in the future.

We firmly believe that if our clients had not made their payment bond claims before the statute of limitation ran, they would not have received payment.  Making these claims is a wonderful tool in the arsenal of Georgia subcontractors and suppliers to make sure that payment is made.  If you need to discuss nonpayment issues on a public works project with our Georgia payment bond attorneys, please contact us today.

Georgia School Projects–Make Your Claim against the Surety Now!

Posted in Government Contracting,Little Miller Act,Payment Bonds by Blue Blog on the August 24th, 2012

Georgia Surety Payment Bond Claim

Since the school projects throughout Georgia are finishing up, we are noticing that some of our clients who furnished labor or materials on Georgia public school projects are calling us to say that they are not being paid.  Fortunately for them, there is usually a payment bond covering the school project which helps guarantee that they will get paid.  These payment bond statutes are generally found in the O.C.G.A. Section 36-91-90 et seq. and are commonly referred to as Georgia’s Miller Act or Georgia’s Little Miller Act (the Miller Act is the federal government’s version of a similar statute covering federal public works projects in Georgia as well as throughout the entire country.)

Many times, it appears as though our clients are promised payments and our clients feel confident that–if they are patient enough–payment will be forthcoming.  Perhaps, for example, the whole project has been “slow pay” or the municipal authority in charge of the project is withholding final payment to the general contractor for some reason unrelated to our client.

Although we hope that our clients are correct and patience will result in payment, it is vital that they make a timely payment bond claim in order to “guarantee” payment.  Some clients are concerned about the legal costs associated with making a payment bond claim and enforcing a payment bond claim in Georgia.  There are multiple strategies which the Cobb Law Group regularly employs when working with public works collection matters.

And, if the project has been “slow pay” project and the client reasonably believes payment will eventually be made, then we advocate (i) making a timely payment bond claim (which is a relatively simple and cost-effective procedure), and (ii) then advising the surety that, although our client’s rights pursuant to the payment bond have been preserved, we request ample time to allow our client and the obligee opportunity to amicably resolve the matter.

Thus, a specialty subcontractor or supplier has (i) met its minimum obligations under the terms of the payment bond, (ii) has not incurred excessive legal fees, and (iii) has maintained the right to pursue its remedies under the payment bond if necessary.

Regardless, a claimant cannot let any deadline slip away; thus, it is important to review some of the essential deadlines on making timely claims on payment bonds on Georgia public works projects:

Deadline Number 1: If you were a third tier supplier or subcontractor working for any one other than the project’s general contractor or the municipal authority, then you may have had to send a Notice to Owner and a Notice to Contractor within the first 30 days that you began working or supplying to the project.

Deadline Number 2: If did not receive payment in full, then you must make a claim against a Georgia Public Works project within 90 days of the last day in which you were physically on the job or furnished materials to the jobsite.

Deadline Number 3: Generally speaking a payment bond claimant must bring an action against the bond (a civil lawsuit) within one year from the completion of the contract and the acceptance of the public building or public works by the proper public authorities.

If you have provided services, labor or materials on a Georgia public school project (or any federal, state or municipal project) and have not received payment in full, please contact us to discuss your rights under Georgia’s Little Miller Act (or any other construction law or business law matter you may have!)

This is a general information article and should not be construed as legal advice or a legal opinion. The content above has been edited for conciseness and additional relevant points are omitted for space constraints. Readers are encouraged to seek counsel from a construction lawyer for advice on a particular circumstance.

Big Changes for Contractors Coming August 15 through the SBA’s Surety Bond Guarantee Program!

Posted in Bid Bonds,Current Legal Issues,Payment Bonds by Blue Blog on the August 8th, 2012

Surety Law on Georgia Construction Projects

by:  Cobb Law Group

It’s coming soon!  August 15 is a big day for small construction contractors and subcontractors!  According to the U.S. Small Business Administration’s Surety Bond Guarantee Program, smaller construction contractors will have improved access to bonds.

First, there is a new, streamlined application process which simplifies the existing SBG program paperwork for construction contracts of $250,000 or less.  The new form combines two existing forms, the SBA Form 994 (Application for Surety Bond Guarantee Assistance) and the SBA Form 990 (Surety Bond Agreement), and it eliminates the reference to SBA Form 994C.

In a second bit of good news, SBA will no longer require the principal to complete and submit two other forms for these small contract amounts, SBA Form 994F (Schedule of Work in Process) and SBA Form 413 (Personal Financial Statement).

According to the American Subcontractors Association,  “Paperwork burdens have real dollar costs that can deter participation in any federal program, especially for smaller dollar value transactions, which magnify the costs associated with the paperwork burdens.”  The Cobb Law Group is proud to be a part of the American Subcontractors Group (“ASA”) and applaud the ASA for its efforts in supporting this new streamlined process.

If you are a small construction contractor, we would enjoy hearing how this new application process is likely to affect your business.  Please leave a comment below!

This is a general information article and should not be construed as legal advice or a legal opinion. The content above has been edited for conciseness and additional relevant points are omitted for space constraints. Readers are encouraged to seek counsel from a construction lawyer for advice on a particular circumstance.

Payment Bonds on Private Sector Construction Projects in Georgia (how to recover more money)

Posted in Payment Bonds,Practical Tips by Administrator on the August 3rd, 2012

Increase Recovery on Bad Debt in Georgia

by Mark A. Cobb

Cobb Law Group

Most credit professionals involved in the construction industry understand the general rule that there are unique remedies for non-payment issues on Georgia construction projects.  Furthermore, they understand that filing and perfecting payment bond claims and materialmen’s liens are among the most useful tools to ensure payment on bad debt.  Generally speaking, liens are useful when the construction project is owned by a private individual or entity, and payment bonds are a useful collection tool when the construction project is owned by a public entity such as a state or federal government project.

Did you know, however, that payment bonds are not limited to governmental projects?  It’s true, many large private construction projects in Georgia are also covered by a payment bond!

Practical Tip #1: If you are a supplier or subcontractor working or supplying on a private construction project in Georgia, ask whether or not the project on which you are working is covered by a payment bond.

If the project is covered by a payment bond, then if you do not receive payment for your labor, equipment or services, then you may be able to simultaneously file a payment bond claim and file a mechanic’s lien against the real estate where the project is located.  If you are able to do this, then your odds of recovering bad debt increase substantially!

Look at it this way:

  • If you do not file a lien or make a payment bond claim, then only the person or entity with whom you contracted owes you the money;
  • If you file a suppliers or subcontractor’s lien, then you are adding the owner of the project as another possible source of recovery;
  • Similarly, if you make a payment bond claim, then you are also adding the surety as another possible source of recovery.

It is important to note that payment bonds on private sector projects are similar–but not the same–as payment bonds on public projects.  Public payment bonds are required by statute and must meet statutory obligations.  Since construction liens are the statutory remedy for privately-held projects, private project payment bonds are not governed by statutes.  Instead, they are a contract between the surety and the project owner or general contractor for the benefit of subcontractors and suppliers.

Practical Tip #2: Since payment bonds on private projects are governed by contract law, you must read the bond very carefully to ascertain your rights and obligations under the bond.  Failure to comply with the payment bond’s requirements could result in a denial of your claim.

For example, a private project payment bond may require that the notice of your claim be sent to a particular address or via a particular method.  In order to seek payment pursuant to the payment bond in this example, you must provide the notice as required by the payment bond.   If you do not carefully read–and follow–the requirements in the bond, your claim may be lost forever.  But, if you meet the requirements, you may find yourself in a great position to recover the debt more easily and more quickly.

If you have any questions about filing a claim against a payment bond on a private project, please contact the Cobb Law Group to discuss your situation with one of our construction lawyers today!
This is a general information article and should not be construed as legal advice or a legal opinion. The content above has been edited for conciseness and additional relevant points are omitted for space constraints. Readers are encouraged to seek counsel from a construction lawyer for advice on a particular circumstance.

Payment Bond Claims on Privately Owned Construction Projects in Georgia

Posted in Materilamen's Liens,Payment Bonds,Public Works Projects by Administrator on the May 17th, 2012

You probably know that payments bonds are a great way to increase the likelihood of getting paid for the work you perform or the materials you supply on Federal, state and local government projects in Georgia.  But, did you know that private construction projects can also have payment bonds?

Public Works Projects and Payment Bonds: Since public policy prohibits a supplier or a subcontractor from filing and foreclosing a claim of lien against a public project, the federal and state governments have established a bonding procedure to protect the interests of construction professionals who are not paid for their work and supplies.  All construction contracts in excess of $100,000 for any public works located in Georgia (this includes Federal public works projects as well as State of Georgia and local municipality public works projects) must be covered by a payment bond.  Payment bonds may also be issued for smaller public works projects.  Because these federal, state and local construction projects are governed by statutes, payment bond claims against government projects are (largely) governed by statutes.  Federal projects, for example, are governed by The Miller Act.  The State of Georgia has enacted two separate code sections relating to payment bonds: one covers construction projects owned by the State of Georgia, and one covers construction projects owned by counties and local municipalities in Georgia (collectively, these are referred to as the Little Miller Act because it mirrors its federal counterpart).  For more information, on public works payment bonds, please click here.

Private Construction Projects and Payment Bonds: Government public works projects require payment bonds by statute, but there is no requirement that privately-owned construction projects must be covered by a payment bond.  Nonetheless, an owner or a general contractor may also include a payment bond.  If so, that is probably great news for any sub-contractor or supplier working in Georgia!  However, since payment bonds are not required by statute, they are not as regulated by statute as the public works payment bonds.  Instead, they tend to be governed by contract; specifically, they are governed by the contract between the surety (the insurance company providing the payment bond, the obligee (the person requiring the bond), and the obligor (the person performing the construction contract).  What does this mean?  It means you should obtain a copy of the payment bond as soon as possible and read it!  It will set out the method(s) of making a claim as well as the deadlines.

Payment Bonds and Mechanics and Materialmen’s Liens on Private Projects: Even if the private project on which you are working or supplying materials in Georgia is covered by a payment bond, then you are still allowed to file a claim of lien if you are not paid.  This is a boon to sub-contractors and suppliers as it gives them multiple options for collecting the money they are owed.

Needless to say, payment bond claims on public works projects, payment bonds claims on private projects, and mechanics and materialmen’s lien claims each have their own requirements and deadlines.  If you have provided labor or materials on a project but you haven’t received payment, please contact a construction lawyer in Georgia who can assess your claim and help you navigate the requirements and meet the deadlines to file your payment bond claim and construction liens.

This is a general information article on Georgia construction law and should not be construed as legal advice or a legal opinion. The content above has been edited for conciseness and additional relevant points are omitted for space constraints. Readers are encouraged to seek counsel from a construction lawyer for advice on a particular circumstance.

Payment Bond Claims on Public Works Projects in Georgia

Posted in Government Contracting,Payment Bonds,Public Works Projects by Administrator on the May 10th, 2012

Payment Bond Claims in GeorgiaThe pundits continue to debate the state of the economy, but since we represent so many construction professionals, we are able to notice trends pretty quickly ourselves.  To no one’s surprise, government contracting work has increased, and this has given much-needed work to subcontractors, and suppliers in Georgia.  Many clients who had stayed away from public works projects have since embraced them.

Unfortunately, we have noticed that government contract jobs in Georgia have been “slow pay”.  What does that mean for those working and supplying on government jobs?  Practically speaking, it means that our clients’ cash flow is interrupted–usually for no reason.  It also means that they are having to enforce their payment bond claim rights in Georgia.

Almost every day, we receive a telephone call from a specialty subcontractor or a supplier who is not getting paid for their work and materials on a government project.  Fortunately, if a payment bond claim is timely filed, then their likelihood of recovery is very good.  Here are some important points to keep in mind if you are working on a government project.

  • Know Whether the Project Owner is a Governmental Entity: Be very careful to identify the owner of the public works project on which you are working.  Some projects may look like they are owned by the Federal, state or local government, but, in fact, they are owned by a private entity.  Public or military housing projects can be owned by a private corporate and then leased back to the government.  Determining the owner helps determine which set of requirements apply in your particular situation.  Development Authorities, Housing Authorities, and similar “government” organization can blur the distinction between owners.  (Remember, just because there is a payment bond covering the project does not mean that it is a government project–payment bonds may be found on private projects too!)
  • Know the Government Entity Layer: If you know that your project is a government contract, then you must determine for which governmental layer the project belongs.  Generally speaking, your government project may be Federal, State of Georgia, or a local municipality (such as a county or city government).  Each of these three layers of government are covered by their own statutes and requirements for payment bond enforcement.  All Federal projects are covered by The Miller Act; all State of Georgia projects are coverer by The Little Miller Act so it is vital to apply the proper rules to your slow-pay issue.
  • Meet the Deadline for Filing a Payment Bond Claim in Georgia: Typically, you must file a claim within 90 days of the last day in which you worked on the governmental project.
  • Get a copy of the Payment Bond: The surety issuing the payment bond covering your project will have certain requirements and can help identify owners, general contractors and addresses.  Some general contractors make obtaining copies of the payment bond available, some do not.
  • Make Sure that You Sent A Notice to Owner/Notice to Contractor: If you are a third tier supplier or subcontractor then you must send a Georgia Notice to Owner (“NTO”) and a Georgia Notice to Contractor (“NTC”) on all projects owned by the State of Georgia or any local municipality.  These NTO’s and NTC’s must be sent within thirty days of the first day in which you began working on the government project or you began supplying on the government project.  If you fail to do this, you may be prohibited from filing a claim against the payment bond.

If you have any questions about contractor rights or suppliers’ rights regarding government bond claims on projects located anywhere in Georgia, please contact us.


This is a general information article and should not be construed as legal advice or a legal opinion. The content above has been edited for conciseness and additional relevant points are omitted for space constraints. Readers are encouraged to seek counsel from a construction lawyer for advice on a particular circumstance.

How To Assess Commercial Accounts on Georgia Construction Projects

So many people contact us regarding nonpayment issues on Georgia construction projects, and I thought you might appreciate reading a summary of options we usually discuss during our first conference with our clients:

First, we assess some fundamental issues by asking the following questions:

•    What type of services, labor or supplies did you provide?
•    What was the last day you actually provided services, labor or supplies to the project?
•    Have you been given any notices regarding failure to perform, defects, or other notices?
•    Were you providing services, labor or supplies on a privately-owned project, a project owned by a governmental entity (local, State of Georgia or federal project)?
•    Are they payment bonds covering the project?
•    Was your contract written or oral?
•    With whom was your contract (what tier are you)?
•    Did you have a personal guaranty from someone guaranteeing payment of the amounts you are owed?

Assuming that you were a general contractor, subcontractor or supplier who provided quality services, materials and labor in a timely fashion, then whomever you contracted with probably owes you the money you are due.   And, that is great.  However, Georgia construction laws, when correctly applied, may allow you to seek recovery of the debt from a third party.  Thus, our next assessment is whether there is any viable third-party who may also be liable for the debt.  This can get very technical and complex, but here are some of the common areas we explore:

•    Can a materialmen or mechanic’s lien be filed (which may make the real estate where your services, materials or labor was provided liable for the debt)?  Click here for more information on this topic!
•    Can you make a payment bond claim (which may make a third-party insurer liable for the debt)?
•    Can a Constructive Trust be claimed (which may make retainage or other monies owed to a higher tier) which may make provide a source of recovery for your debt?
•    Are there circumstances which allow a quantum meruit claim (which may make a third party liable for the debt based upon “fairness” issues)?
•    Is there a guarantor which can be pursued?

Needless to say, the more opportunities there are for recovery, then (i) the more likely the recovery will be made, (ii) the higher the recovery is likely to be, (iii) the more quickly the recovery will occur, and (iv) the lower your costs of collection will be.

Ultimately, then, how do you and your Georgia construction lawyer work to improve your recovery?

•    Periodically, review your contracts to make sure they comply with current regulations and statutes;
•    Obtain a personal guarantee and other useful information (click here for details!);
•    Learn all the various deadlines in Georgia for filing Lien Claims and for making payment bond claims (click here for some important Georgia Lien & Bond deadlines);
•    Learn the statute of limitations for filing suits to perfect your Georgia Mechanic’s Lien Claims, your private project payment bond claims, your local municipality, State or Georgia and federal government payment bond claims;

If you are looking for a Georgia Construction Law Firm who can handle your files anywhere in the State of Georgia and who understand Georgia’s Construction Lien Laws, Subcontractor Laws, Miller Act and Miller Act Claims, please contact the Cobb Law Group to see how we can improve your collection rate!

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